However, this old man's brain can't remember when the spacing between elements are listed, are they center-to-center or edge-of-element to edge-of-element. How to Build a 4 Element 2 Meter Yagi Antenna with a Gamma Match 2m Yagi Antenna: pin. Folded dipole has advantages over the dipole in greater bandwidth and higher impedance, and it can be more easily adjusted with a BalUn to 50Ω required by the most devices (this is not always correct. ORG The most common types are the yagi antenna, the log-periodic antenna, and the corner reflector, which are frequently combined and commercially sold as residential TV antennas. The Yagi was designed using Martin Meserve’s VHF/UHF Yagi Antenna Design tools, as with the 144MHz Yagi. Yagicad is a fully integrated analysis and design package primarily intended for VHF yagi aerials. Though having a narrower bandwidth than log periodic air band antennas, yagis are easier to construct and provide high gain near the design frequency. The correct lengths for the various models will be displayed in the chart. 4 GHz Yagi antenna for a project, its bandwidth must be cover 2. Wilson Yagi Antenna for 700/800/900 MHz Band. For lo VHF you would need a Yagi antenna that does lo and hi VHF or a DIY loop antenna. 4 Element Yagi Building This article contains discussion of all the different antenna principles previously described elsewhere on this website. 00€ Add to Cart. The numerous wires you see, called directors, absorb then reradiate the signals. The reception pattern of a directional type antenna is shown below, left. The results are conveniently displayed in inches, centimeters, feet and meters. yagi antenna design calculator. Consider using a “grid” antenna for areas with high-wind and freezing weather. The Wire Size can range from 16 AWG to 12 AWG. The cheapest way I have found to build this antenna is to find an old Moonraker 4. Posted on August 5, but this time, I instead opted to use K7MEM's Yagi calculator to design one. We Provide 20 for you about 10 element yagi antenna calculator- page 1. In many cases 28Ω antennas are a better choice). 3G about 1 to 1. We've posted the one showing the build below the break, you can find the other showing the antenna being tested. In this case, I wanted to build a 40 meter (7. The directors are pretty short at TV Channel 14 and are helping a little bit, but not much. Figure 3 shows my 4 element quad built with old Moonraker 4 parts on a 40 foot tower. Below is a JavaScript that I wrote in order for you to quickly calculate the dimensions for a seven element Yagi-Uda Antenna. The DL6WU yagi is highly regarded as being easy to build with repeatable results, broad bandwidth and a useful pattern. 440 MHz -- 2 Element & 4 Element Yagi's - From The Antenna Elmer Super J-Pole Antenna (Collinear Design) - By KB0YKI U HF EggBeater Antenna - From ON6WG / F5VIF 432MHz 8 Element Quagi Antenna-- By IK1HGE 900 MHz Antennas Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF-- From Kent WA5VJB GHz Antennas Cheap Yagi Antennas for VHF/UHF-- From Kent WA5VJB. Should I use a larger coaxial like rg6? The coax going from antenna to the wimax box is only going to be like 3 feet long maximum. ARRL Product Review of the M2 6-Meter HO Loop Antennas. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. Yagi Uda Antenna Calculator You may want to combine it with a folded Dipole. The coverage width and elevation is comparable to that of a Yagi antenna. I had a great idea that a full 5 element 20 meter beam in a fixed direction might reach Europe! Some day when the Sun Spots are helping the Ionisphere. You're looking for a can between about 3" and 3 2/3" in diameter. It consists of a main antenna, called the driven element, and a set of auxiliary antennas, known as. Yagi a bit more work to build. To that end, here are 5 of the coolest DIY TV antenna plans we found. † The terminating stub \(Z_\text{term}\) is only required when the characteristic impedance of the feeder \(Z_\text{c,feed}\) is low. Yagi builders strive to have the antenna's input impedance at 50 ohms to match the 50-ohm coaxial cable. Download Yagi Calculator - This is an application designed to generate data for the construction of long yagi antennas for vhf and uhf use in a few simple. Mainly because most antennas work pretty well across the board. Due to material, I decided on a 5 element Yagi built for VHF since all I would have to buy is more 3/8″ round stock. Yagi 6 element 7 element yagi calculator resource detail the dxzone a 2 element direct feed yagi for multiple bands by nno s antenna calculator martin hedman s Portable. Microstrip Patch Antennas (or simply patch antenna) are increasingly useful because the antenna is printed directly onto a circuit board. About Joost. DIY 5$ Portable VHF Yagi Antenna for the 2 Meter Band (144-146 MHz) by F4HWK: In this publication i explain how to build a very light weight, cheap, easy to build and deployable in 30 seconds portable VHF antenna for the 2 meter band. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. I do not consider a long boom channel cut yagi to be a good beginners antenna project. It is the easiest directional antenna to build with a proper impedance match. I had build 2100mHz and 2600mHz double biquad antenna (without lips) using your guide for 3G & 4G respectively. All you need to do is enter the desired resonant (center) frequency in the form below, then click "Calculate". The following program will calculate the lengths needed to construct several popular wire antennas. Modeling the W6NL 40m Moxon Greg Ordy, W8WWV April 13, 2012 V1. 5:1 range. The gain of an an antenna with parasitic elements varies with the spacing and tuning of the elements, and thus for any given spacing there is a tuning condition that will give maximum gain this spacing. I know from my reading that a big ass yagi will not work very good due to it's narrow beam width I need to stay below 10L. Effective up to 40 mile radius of broadcast signal, optimized for digital reception, receives local hd & all digital & analog tv broadcasts, supports broadcast 1080 hdtv, outperforms many larger outdoor antennas. This is my simple implementation of the ARRL Antenna Book design equations for the axial-mode helical antenna. Microstrip Patch Antennas (or simply patch antenna) are increasingly useful because the antenna is printed directly onto a circuit board. DATE REVIEWED DATE. The formula and basics of Yagi Antenna Calculator are also explained with example. stein, KC6T 10823 Bismarck Ave Northridge, CA 91326. Choose from quarter-wave, half-wave, the powerful 5/8-wave, 3/4-wave, or full-wave, and calculate minimum lengths of required radials, and then shop for your needs on our other pages and select from our inventory of aluminum, fiberglass, wire, coax, connectors, and other parts and. Enter the desired frequency then click on Calculate and the optimum values for that combination will be displayed in feet, inches and fractions of inches, and in meters. ” A Yagi–Uda antenna (named for the two Japanese engineers who invented the design) looks similar to an LPDA, but there are important technical differences between the two. 3:1) on 80m and 40m, and below 3:1 on 20, 15 and 10m. 4GHz devices (like surveillance cameras) into many miles and kilometers. Long yagis are commonly used from the 144MHz amateur band to the 2. Well, on 10 meters, you can build antennas that can have quite a bit of gain and directivity and they can still be small and simple. The best[most relevant] source is an ARRL antenna book article on a 2 band trap dipole. Meserve - Very throrough & accuracte Ham Nation 14: Leo Builds A Dipole. It is frequently referred to as a beam because a rotor is used to direct the antenna toward the needed signaling area. † The terminating stub \(Z_\text{term}\) is only required when the characteristic impedance of the feeder \(Z_\text{c,feed}\) is low. HOME BUILD YAGI FOR GMRS - posted in Guest Forum: I am looking for plans to build a home brew yagi 4 or 5 elements for the GMRS center freq. BUILD your YAGI ANTENNA ! Following the frequent demands on the topic here is detailed with picture the construction of an Yagi antenna calculated for the FM broadcasting band 88 - 108 MHz. I find it easier to build an antenna without the lips. The correct lengths for the various models will be displayed in the chart. Yagi Calculator is a program build to produces dimensions for a DL6WU style long Yagi antenna. 6 mm long at boom position = 30 mm (IT = 90. popular-communications. Yagi Antenna Design Software I have built several Yagi Antennas using this software, each antenna has been successful. I am a ham operator and soon plan to get my GMRS license. 3 GHz since it is quite difficult to find a 1. If you can find a Moonraker 4 that has at least the Boom and hubs (that are still ok to use) you are halfway home. Formula/Equations used in Yagi Antenna Calculator Following formula/equations are used in the Yagi Antenna Calculator. I plan on making two using the calculator on bcbj. Mignon writes "This industrious fellow in New Zealand made his own WiFi antenna using a USB WiFi adapter and a Chinese 'spider skimmer mesh scoop. As with all directional "beam" antennas, performance characteristics of a Yagi antenna are front-to-back ratio (F/B, a. Yagi 6 element 7 element yagi calculator resource detail the dxzone a 2 element direct feed yagi for multiple bands by nno s antenna calculator martin hedman s Portable. They are ideally suited for directional applications in the 900MHz ISM and GSM bands. These antenna designs were calculated using VK5DJ’s Yagi Calculator I like 3 elements for best performance for the size but also made a 4 element. 2 GHz band, DX Engineering has a VHF/UHF beam antenna that can deliver the clean, clear signal you demand. Values for antenna height above average terrain (commonly abbreviated "HAAT") can be calculated using this form. I am using Yagi Calculator, written by VK5DJ to generate the element lengths and spacings. There are two parts of the video, one showing you how to make it and the other. com in a single category. Folded dipole has advantages over the dipole in greater bandwidth and higher impedance, and it can be more easily adjusted with a BalUn to 50Ω required by the most devices (this is not always correct. Information. shapes and sizes, namely; log-periodic, rhombic, ferrite, Yagi antenna, etc. - 1" PVC pipe 4 feet long - 6 wire coat hangers - one SO-239 female connector. Follow the measurements on the diagram including spacing between the elements and when built successfully it will give you a very desirable 11 dBi gain or about or about 8. 00 for pipe and tubes) ksi: Yield stress (Fy), Mild steel = 30 ksi, A36 steel = 36 ksi: Impact Factor, I. The gain of an an antenna with parasitic elements varies with the spacing and tuning of the elements, and thus for any given spacing there is a tuning condition that will give maximum gain this spacing. To construct a dipole, use 10- to 18-gauge copper wire. This antenna is easy to build, the only care is the strict respect and the precision of the dimensions. The hard mathematical design work for the wifi antennas shown here was accomplished elegantly using a yagi antenna modeler, created by Kevin Schmidt (W9CF) and Michael Lee. The results from. This antenna is made for the DX'er thatís looking for an antenna to work across the globe. It uses a matching system similar to j-pole antenna. The WiFi Yagi antenna is a great accessory for the Alfa Desktop WiFi Booster. However, this old man's brain can't remember when the spacing between elements are listed, are they center-to-center or edge-of-element to edge-of-element. 4GHz devices (like surveillance cameras) into many miles and kilometers. 2 MBs and 4G upto 3. Probably the easiest rotatable beam is a 2 Element Yagi, both in the mechanical and the electrical sense. The design and construction process of a Yagi-Uda antenna for operation in the 433MHz band are presented, with an emphasis on the theory and design techniques. With conventional solid. The yagi will not hurt your radio if it is made for the right frequency. If you decide you really need a yagi with more elements, here are the lengths of them. com offers the best Yagi antenna products online shopping. March 2, 2020 - by Arfan - Leave a Comment. I've been tinkering around for awhile on some high VHF designs - but they all look homemade - for my attic to deal with Houston's digital future of stations occupying 8, 11. You can extrapolate easily below for others frequency grace to values of diagrams. A portable 2-element VHF yagi May, 1997 Here's a simple Saturday project: build a portable VHF yagi antenna for 2 meters. Cut 2 pieces of coat-hanger wire 18 inches long. YA-Yagi Yagi designing software How to Build a Dipole Antenna KWARC Dipole Calculator. Yagi Designer 2. If anyone could direct me in the direction of a web site or plans I would greatly appreciate it. Product Title Turmode Yagi WiFi Antenna for 2. All antennas discussed are made of wire, have a design frequency of 29 Mhz since this is where most of the AM activity occurs on 10 meters, and are shown with antenna patterns modeledusing EZNEC, with the antenna. com in a single category. The resulting setup is a low-cost high-quality high-gain antenna. yagi antenna design calculator. The antenna has been optimized for good F/R and SWR performance across the 6-meter band. This 7 element 6m Yagi gives you tremendous performance with very high gain on a 30ft boom. All you need is two rabbit ear antennas from Radio Shack, two CATV baluns, four feet of 3/4" CPVC pipe with one tee, and a bit of time. Easy-to-build HDTV antennas. 7 1 GROUNDPLANE ANTENNA Model FA -2 For tower installations however, some means. I find it easier to build an antenna without the lips. this antenna come alive , become a DUALBAND antenna , and tested 2m with my MFJ-259B 144-148 not more than 1. VK5DJ's YAGI CALCULATOR Yagi design frequency =787. I would like to build a Yagi antenna for my Baofeng UV-5R, but I'm a total newbie when it comes to amateur radios. To interpret this diagram, imagine that the antenna is at the origin. hosted mirror o. Instead, I have opted to build the VHF HDTV antenna as a mono bander yagi. 747-787 Mhz 4G LTE Yagi Antenna in 10 Steps for $10 by Damon Chandler 'dmc271' - A detailed step by step construction of a 747-787 Mhz, US 4G band, 14-element Yagi using a metal boom and a folded dipole for the driven element. This 2nd design is similar to the one above ,but has a 5 1/2 inch Gamma Tube which also works as well. Before you start constructing your own LPDA using the LPDA calculator below, please read chapter 10 of the 20th Edition of the ARRL Antenna Book (Other editions of the ARRL Antenna Book work as well, but may. (3/2 λ) doublet with 31 (1/4 λ) ft of ladder line, then fed with coax. I have found this program easy to install. They are on same height. 0 Uplink | 869. 850mhz cell phone signal booster yagi antenna // best for jiofi // worked even in no network village - Duration: 8:33. Log Periodic Dipole Arrays, or LPDA is a directional antenna with relatively constant characteristics across it's wide frequency range. DATE REVIEWED DATE. Yagi 6 element 7 element yagi calculator resource detail the dxzone a 2 element direct feed yagi for multiple bands by nno s antenna calculator martin hedman s Portable. Figure-1 depicts typical Bowtie Antenna. Hello Guys, yesterday I thought to myself I'm gonna make me one of those Yagi Uda antenna adapters for my Mavic Mini controller even though I don;t have a 3D printer! And I did, and it actually works! I used an online Yagi Uda calculator, and I just chose my options, I made a 11. The antenna offers a gain of about 10 dB, is lightweight, mechanically strong and rivals the performance of similar commercial antennas. 2m 70cm Yagi On2pco. To be used for Ham radio antennas or wind turbines. 35 mm Radiator diam = 6. I used computer software 4nec2 (antenna modeler and optimizer) version 5. YA-Yagi Yagi designing software How to Build a Dipole Antenna KWARC Dipole Calculator. The results are conveniently displayed in inches, centimeters, feet and meters. The Yagi antenna's overall basic design consists of a "resonant" fed dipole (the fed dipole is the driven element and in the picture above and the second from the left side ), with one or more. FREQUENCY IN MHz. This cable is readily available, easy to install, and will perform well for rooftop runs of up to 60 or 70 feet at 50 MHz. I have already constructed the antenna and assembled it, what i need help is to properly match it to standard 50 Ohms to ensure maximum efficiency. For lo VHF you would need a Yagi antenna that does lo and hi VHF or a DIY loop antenna. Then, attach them to the inside of the metal cookware using twist-ties, tape, or hot glue. Aircraft Quality 6061-T6 aluminium and compression crimped elements for optimum strength Corrosion, fade, and ice-build up resistance with a 5 year fade and salt guarantee. What I have come up with was a simple diagram and using the measurements of the diagram I proceeded to build my antenna. tower compared with the typical self-supporting tower supporting a beam antenna. James Clerk Maxwell; Japan; Jeri Ellesworth(AI6TK) Pacificon keynote talk released. org The … K6MYC on Antenna Testing. The software on floppy disk is available separately as #3827 IBM PC or #3843 Macintosh. The antenna offers a gain of about 10 dB, is lightweight, mechanically strong and rivals the performance of similar commercial antennas. The kit contains all the pre-cut and pre-drilled parts required to build a biquad antenna. 6 Element Yagi Antenna This antenna antenna design consists of wire mounted on pieces of 3/4 inch plywood drilled out to slide onto a galvanized metal pipe that serves as the boom. Building a 15 Element Yagi for 2. You'll need to know a few things before running Yagi Calculator, such as: • operating frequency • boom diameter • element diameter. VK5DJ's YAGI CALCULATOR Yagi Design Frequency - Journal VK5DJ's YAGI CALCULATOR Yagi design frequency =787. By phasing 2 yagis together you can increase your forward gain by at least. Yagi antenna w/telescoping boom & elements based on the tape measure yagi by Joe Leggio (WB2HOL) and James T. I was working on connecting to a local repeater (12 miles away per Google maps) and had no luck with the rubber antenna on my handheld. Such setups are widely used in wireless community networks for long-distance Wi-Fi links. The antenna described here is a direct-connect dual-rectangle beam for use on 70 cm between 440 and 450 MHz. Amateur radio / Antenna / Seven element yagi antenna. Another ham brought to my attention, that I should have indicated if this yagi antenna calculator is built with the Yagi beam elements isolated from the boom or not isolated. 00 MHz Wavelength =381 mm Parasitic elements contacting a round section metal boom 18 mm across. The most common form consists of a dipole driven element, a single reflector element, and one or more director elements. Softening the Tubing 4. Yagi-Uda antenna gain considerations. I tired the pringle can antenna and the Yagi beats it hands dow. Yagi Uda Antenna Calculator You may want to combine it with a folded Dipole. org but Ide like to test these first. Digital compact outdoor yagi antenna, includes mast & hardware. 0 is a Yagi antenna calculator that can easily display E-Plane, horizontal radiation pattern, and H-Plane the vertical radiation patters, as well as to display antenna characteristics, in Gain, F/B ratio and feed point resistance and reactance. Typically a reflector is the first element added in any Yagi design as this gives the most. To maximize gain, the boom length is set to 2. A long range antenna for 2. Here we have collected some links to building instructions for 11m antennas on the Internet. Many people (including Wilson Electronics themselves) refer to LPDA antennas as “Yagi antennas. Serious results can be expect when you have a 4 elements Yagi, in most cases all what the Big-guns are working you will be able to hear and work the Dx as well. One tip I have is to have the yagi at vertical polarization throughout the entire pass, because that decreases the effects of the earth. 2 dBi free space gain). For the boom, if you do not have a non-conductive material (like pvc conduit) you can build insulators (13mm or greater) to mount the elements to. 5 MHz and above). 2 MBs and 4G upto 3. With Yagicad it is possible to enter a base design from scratch or use one of a number of saved well known designs. front-to-rear, F/R), gain (in the forward direction), feedpoint impedance (hence, SWR bandwidth), and side-lobes These characteristics depend in a complex manner on design parameters such as spacing between the. Antenna Calculator Calculate your dipole, 3 element yagi etc. YAgi antenna design/analysis program; Yagi Design Program (On-line using Java) YagiStress - The Ultimate Mechanical Design Software For Antenna Designers. What is Yagi Antenna ? The simple Yagi Antenna is shown in the figure-1. If you decide you really need a yagi with more elements, here are the lengths of them. Long yagis are commonly used from the 144MHz amateur band to the 2. Long Yagi are commonly used from the 144MHz amateur band to the 2. LFA Yagi Antenna. Using dimensions from the calculator referenced in the Links section, I modeled the antenna using EZNEC, which is a widely used antenna simulation program that is fairly easy to input data and use. com September 2008 / POP’COMM / 23. DATE REVIEWED DATE. It allows the average amateur to compete with the big boys for DX and without spending your retirement to do so. I'm a bit confused because i found many of them online, all giving me different measurements. The antenna's secret, if there is one, is its hybrid character. If you've ever seen a spindly antenna on top of someone's house, it's probably a Yagi-Uda! Its ease of construction and the cheapness of materials combined with the amount of gain provided makes it an attractive option for DIY projects and prototypes. With some analysis, we feel we can build a high gain array utilising Yagi’s principles of a driven element in the middle and a reflector and a director element front and back. I'm a bit confused because i found many of them online, all giving me different measurements. The antennas were mounted at the top of a 6 metre metal mast, and each antenna was placed respectively ¼ wave away from the mast. In this case, I wanted to build a 40 meter (7. A very critical adjustment is to maintain the Gamma parallel to the element at a distance of 4 A slot antenna is a narrow rectangular opening in a large conductive surface, such as a TV satellite dish. 3:1) on 80m and 40m, and below 3:1 on 20, 15 and 10m. Made a new connector and it will not. DK7ZB More good designs, cleverly optimized for easy matching. I am building a 2. It is inversely proportional to the frequency which means the wave with higher frequency will have shorter wavelength. My garage is 55 feet long about 35 feet wide. 902/903 MHz. As you may know by now, I'm REALLY into airwaves, and saving a buck to build my own antenna. With Yagi type directors, the quagi retains the simplicity and gain of a long boom Yagi without the Yagi drawback at VHF - a dipole driven element. SWL antenna) back in the summer of 1971. Ahh, the good old quarter wave ground plane! This calculator can be used to design a Quarter Wave Ground Plane antenna, with radials. Lincomatic's Homebrew (DIY) WiFi Antennas One of my latest obsessions is building DIY homebrew WiFi antennas. This page covers 3 element Yagi Antenna calculator. The antenna is designed to be fed with 50 or 75 Ohm Coax Cable of most any length with a Balun. No other type has as much gain. 850mhz cell phone signal booster yagi antenna // best for jiofi // worked even in no network village - Duration: 8:33. HF Yagi, HEXX Beam and Rotatable Antennas Choose from top-brand HF Yagi, HEXX beam, and other rotatable antennas to meet your high-frequency needs. Then , TA TA. Diy Tv Antenna Outdoor Hdtv Antenna Ham Radio Antenna Radios Ring Roller Tv Over Fireplace Electronics Projects Building Engineering More information. As many antenna builders have learned, matching a Yagi at VHF (and especially at UHF) is not easy. Modeling the W6NL 40m Moxon Greg Ordy, W8WWV April 13, 2012 V1. 3:1) on 80m and 40m, and below 3:1 on 20, 15 and 10m. Building and experimenting with antennas can be an interesting part of the radio hobby. To construct a dipole, use 10- to 18-gauge copper wire. For more infomation on this kit, including antenna comparision test results, read my review of the WarDrivingWorld DIY Biquad Kit. 1 4 Wave Ground Plane Antenna Calculator. Bending the Elements 5. The impedance of this antenna is around 300 Ω, so you may want to use a transformer or a λ/4 long piece of 120 Ω coaxial cable to match this impedance to 50 Ω. The antenna offers a gain of about 10 dB, is lightweight, mechanically strong and rivals the performance of similar commercial antennas. Here we have collected some links to building instructions for 11m antennas on the Internet. and Construction Notes by XE1MEX. tenna—or set of antennas—to see if we really want to pursue this aspect of Ama-teur Radio to its limit. Well, on 10 meters, you can build antennas that can have quite a bit of gain and directivity and they can still be small and simple. Doublet – Multi-band antenna that is not resonant on a particular band. Since then we have become the largest manufacturer of Amateur, CB, and Scanner antennas and accessories in the UK We are also the largest local authorised dealer for Alinco, Kenwood, Icom, Yaesu and Wouxun. G0KSC designed 3el, 40M & 6el 20M (Force 12) This antenna uses the G0KSC OP-DES design on both 40m and 20m to provide full-band coverage on each. Yagi antenna w/telescoping boom & elements based on the tape measure yagi by Joe Leggio (WB2HOL) and James T. It was installed on a short mast about 15 to 17 feet. The possibilities are limitless. You remove the antenna that comes with the radio and then plug a cable in. DATE REVIEWED DATE. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. Values for antenna height above average terrain (commonly abbreviated "HAAT") can be calculated using this form. Complete text article will be published soon in the PDF format that will include background and a bit of theory how I came to idea to design this simple to build antenna. 6 l-yagi for the IARU-Region 1 2m-band (by DK7ZB). There are several. 25in or 6mm, up to 3/8-in or 8-9mm. Enter the desired frequency then click on Calculate and the optimum values for that combination will be displayed in feet, inches and fractions of inches, and in meters. TXLINE can be found under Tools-TXLINE. The focal point on this design is a cylinder. org The … K6MYC on Antenna Testing. By order 144 - 148 MHz. This calculator will help you to calculate the different wavelength of antennas based on the frequency. 00 for pipe and tubes) ksi: Yield stress (Fy), Mild steel = 30 ksi, A36 steel = 36 ksi: Impact Factor, I. 2000 MHz at a drive impedance of. [3] [4] It has moderate to high gain which depends on the number of elements used, typically limited to about 20 dBi , [3] linear polarization , [3] unidirectional (end-fire) beam pattern [3] with high front-to. However, this old man's brain can't remember when the spacing between elements are listed, are they center-to-center or edge-of-element to edge-of-element. At the heart of every radio and MLA (Magnetic Loop Antenna) is the resonant circuit. Either over booms face in case of on 'On-Boom' build with insulators or spacers - or mountend through the boom. 0 is a Yagi antenna calculator that can easily display E-Plane, horizontal radiation pattern, and H-Plane the vertical radiation patters, as well as to display antenna characteristics, in Gain, F/B ratio and feed point resistance and reactance. The antenna offers a gain of about 10 dB, is lightweight, mechanically strong and rivals the performance of similar commercial antennas. The main category is Antenna design calculators that is about Antenna design calculators. 8 d6 290,5 889 Radiateur 676 2083 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) réflecteur 711 2200 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) Espacements (en mm) Entre: réflecteur. I am planning to build a Yagi antenna for 800 MHz receive only. DATE REVIEWED DATE. Free Online Engineering Calculator to find the Dimensions of a yagi Uda Antenna for a given Frequency Range and Length. Long yagis are commonly used from the 144MHz amateur band to the 2. To build a stronger antenna, multiply that result by a whole number. This page contains details on building a double biquad antenna with approx 13dBi gain. The Yagi-Uda antenna, commonly known as a "Yagi antenna," was invented by Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi in 1926. Tried several yagis but unsuitable because of tree. The articles present designs and construction techniques for inexpensive and easy to build antennas that will make perfect first projects. Consider using a “grid” antenna for areas with high-wind and freezing weather. Construction details for antennas. However, this old man's brain can't remember when the spacing between elements are listed, are they center-to-center or edge-of-element to edge-of-element. What is Yagi Antenna ? The simple Yagi Antenna is shown in the figure-1. Saint Louis Vertical— easy-to-build, easy-to-use antenna Short Vertical Antennas and Ground Systems from VK1BRH Shortened Antennas — creative antenna systems from I5TGC Slinky. Visit Diamond Antenna on Facebook & Instagram! Office hours, Monday through Friday 9:00 a. 95663265306 meters, or 95. The same idea (CPVC and foil tape) may be employed to build small yagi antennas also. 850mhz cell phone signal booster yagi antenna // best for jiofi // worked even in no network village - Duration: 8:33. A yagi antenna is basically a telescope for radio waves. 0”ID aluminum tubing for the inner element. The conductor width isn't of great importance in the design. Product Description. This calculator will help you to calculate the different wavelength of antennas based on the frequency. There are several great programs to come up with the calculations I need. 10 under Wine, to produce dimensions for a DL6WU style long Yagi antenna. The BiQuad is a fairly simple to build 11dbi antenna that puts 99% of it's beam right where you need it - out front. Diy Electronics Electronics Projects Ham Radio Antenna Fm Antenna Diy Ham Radio Operator Dipole Antenna Radios Calculator Hams. To maximize gain, the boom length is set to 2. So by request I am finally writing a DIY Yagi antenna tutorial. The other end of the cable goes to the Yagi. For respect this condition, the dimension of the dipole is accurate. Yagi builders strive to have the antenna's input impedance at 50 ohms to match the 50-ohm coaxial cable. It is designed to have extra long range communications, due to its very low angle of radiation. The larger the wire, the wider the bandwidth. A portable 2-element VHF yagi May, 1997 Here's a simple Saturday project: build a portable VHF yagi antenna for 2 meters. loop antennas, there are a few new ideas to grasp. Yagi Calculator is a Windows program that also runs well on Linux, Ubuntu 8. Reviewed by Bob Allison, WB1GCMAssistant Laboratory [email protected] Marian - 12/03/2009. To build the 5 Elements UHF Yagi you may follow the direction for building the 3 Elements Yagi. Thursday June. Unispectra Ltd 26,749 views. I need help in calculating the antenna length based on the frequency and need advice on the most effective design. Monday June 2020 Phone +44 (0) 7753225261; Subscribe. 2 dBi free space gain). Design criteria for a simple 2 Meter antenna: 4 element yagi easy to build and feed directly with 50 ohm coax. The calculators for other antenna types such as parabolic,horn,dipole and patch are also mentioned. VK5DJ's YAGI CALCULATOR Yagi design frequency = 585. However, a Quagi constructs the reflector and the driven elements as "quads" rather than as linear elements. The antenna will be for UHF and shouldn't be too long (like 1. First, connect the USB WiFi adapter and USB extension cable. I was working on connecting to a local repeater (12 miles away per Google maps) and had no luck with the rubber antenna on my handheld. Updated and revised to provide clear answers to questions frequently asked by hobbyists and electronics technicians, Practical Antenna Handbook, Fifth Edition blends theoretical concepts with hands-on. In addition to the foam core board and copper tape, you'll also need a really cheap balun transformer (which you can get at any electronics store), two wood screws (or solder) to attach it, and a coaxial cable to connect it to. Calculator FM (frequency modulated) antenna to bring in the stations loud and clear. Construction. cally a two-element Yagi. Center of boom has no element and makes for easy mounting. A "T" MATCH TUNING PECULIARITY by Dick Knadle, K2RIW edited 8/12/06 It is a common misconception that adjusting the arm lengths of a T match will change only the Resistive portion of the impedance match to the Driven Element of a Yagi. tower compared with the typical self-supporting tower supporting a beam antenna. The Shortwave Antenna Explained I installed my first outdoor shortwave antenna (a. Their low profile design, often square or rectangular, allows them to be mounted to flat surfaces. Wire Antenna Calculator. the dipole is an essential element of the YAGI antenna. The Super J-Pole Antenna(Collinear Design) Below is a Javascript for calculating the lengths of tubing to be used for the construction of a Super J-Pole. The basic geometry of the antenna is shown in the following figure: An interesting feature of this antenna is that both dual-rectangular elements are electrically connected together, so strictly speaking, the antenna is a single. Design notes: * The width of any antenna boom is included within the length of each dipole element, as one would do for any ordinary dipole or Yagi-Uda antenna. 150 MHz) trap for use in an 80/40 meter vertical antenna. The first attempt to build a Yagi antenna was a thirteen element VHF Yaga and is still not complete. Got a 11dBi MultiBand LPDA Yagi Antenna and all is now good a stable. The best[most relevant] source is an ARRL antenna book article on a 2 band trap dipole. We can also provide you with custom settings to suit your operating preference such as peaking your gain and F/B in the CW portion or the Phone portion of the band. purpose Yagi design calculator allows you to move elements to "tweak" the SWR. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. It is the most effective antenna when compared to other ground plane antennas. They fire in the direction of the boom through the plane of the elements. They are ideally suited for directional applications in the 900MHz ISM and GSM bands. It consists of a driven element combined with an in-line parasitic array. Diy Electronics Electronics Projects Ham Radio Antenna Fm Antenna Diy Ham Radio Operator Dipole Antenna Radios Calculator Hams. 00 for pipe and tubes) ksi: Yield stress (Fy), Mild steel = 30 ksi, A36 steel = 36 ksi: Impact Factor, I. Horizontal or vertical polarization of an cubical QUAD-Antenna is determined by placement of the feed point (feed gap on the driven element) - Parasitic elements need to be mounted in the same orientation as the driven element. To build a stronger antenna, multiply that result by a whole number. Product Title Turmode Yagi WiFi Antenna for 2. All you need is two rabbit ear antennas from Radio Shack, two CATV baluns, four feet of 3/4" CPVC pipe with one tee, and a bit of time. See Stores and websites supplying antenna equipment. The hexagonal beam (or known by many as the hex beam) has become a wildly popular antenna. Some points about 2. This antenna is made for the DX'er thatís looking for an antenna to work across the globe. Doublet – Multi-band antenna that is not resonant on a particular band. I do realize that this is not an optimum design, but it did help me to put out a very good signal on 2 meters. 10 under Wine, to produce dimensions for a DL6WU style long Yagi antenna. THE DEFINITIVE ANTENNA REFERENCE—FULLY REVISED AND EXPANDED!Design and build your own antennas with the help of this unique guide. Next, plug the antenna into your computer using the extension. 5:1 range. Geometriy is not that critical. Dipole antennas are used alone and as parts of dipole arrays. 4 GHz Yagi antenna for a project, its bandwidth must be cover 2. 5 meters max). We offer a huge selection of Yagi antennas, including cross-polarized and circularly polarized, from top brands like M2 Antennas, Cushcraft, MFJ, and Diamond Antenna. While the gain won't be "up there" with the big tri-banders & the like, a useful amount of gain can be realized without breaking the bank. Thank's for the input here is what I know. This sketch shows a semi-exploded view of the antenna. 25in or 6mm, up to 3/8-in or 8-9mm. Finally, a mast mount version of the 11 meter "collinear" CB antenna is available. In this case the description and design info for a helix antenna. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. The other end of the cable goes to the Yagi. Dual-band Loop Antenna for 30m - 40m. The size doesn't have to be exact. Figure-1 depicts typical Bowtie Antenna. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. Unlike typical Yagi antennas with half-wavelength elements, the elements of the Quad and the Delta Loop are a full-wavelength long. Use our simple calculator to determine approximate dimensions of materials needed to build a vertical antenna. 12mm x … Continue reading "Build a 15 Element Yagi antenna for 2. Antenna Maker Antenna design program for Quads, Yagis, Inverted Vees, J-poles, Trap Dipoles and more. Diy Electronics Electronics Projects Ham Radio Antenna Fm Antenna Diy Ham Radio Operator Dipole Antenna Radios Calculator Hams. A Quagi antenna uses the same strategy as a Uda-Yagi, using a refltector, a driven element, and then a number of director elements. The other end of the cable goes to the Yagi. Front to back ratio for both antennas is about 22 dB. The formula and basics of Yagi Antenna Calculator are also explained with example. I had build 2100mHz and 2600mHz double biquad antenna (without lips) using your guide for 3G & 4G respectively. At 16 dBi, the Yagi is more than 10x as sensitive as the Alfa's standard 5 dBm antenna meaning that it will do a much better job of "pulling in" a weak WiFi signal such as that from a campground recreation room or remote WiFi antenna. Directional antennas are typically Yagi type, non-directional are dipole type. These antenna designs were calculated using VK5DJ’s Yagi Calculator I like 3 elements for best performance for the size but also made a 4 element. Present Yagi antennas are optimized for channel 69. Radiator diam = 6. Extended Double Zepp – Longer than a dipole. Boost your reception with this monster homemade antenna. To construct a dipole, use 10- to 18-gauge copper wire. It consists of a main antenna, called the driven element, and a set of auxiliary antennas, known as. Full-wave loop antennas can be large at lower frequencies, but they are quieter than dipoles and have more gain broadside to the plane of the loop. 2 MBs and 4G upto 3. Long Yagi are commonly used from the 144MHz amateur band to the 2. cally a two-element Yagi. Contrairement au dipôle, l'antenne Fuchs est alimentée à une extrémité du brin demi-onde, dans un noeud de courant (ventre de tension, c'est pour cela qu'on. Materials Lists 1. A yagi antenna is basically a telescope for radio waves. The yagi-uda antenna is the most recognized antenna. It was installed on a short mast about 15 to 17 feet. Another ham brought to my attention, that I should have indicated if this yagi antenna calculator is built with the Yagi beam elements isolated from the boom or not isolated. With the bolted construction, they look more like professional antennas than DIY jobs. If I am going to build it, I want it to be worth it and efficient. To build the 5 Elements UHF Yagi you may follow the direction for building the 3 Elements Yagi. There are 3 other sections. Check out the Biquad Yagi Customizer to create an antenna of your own design. Diy Electronics Electronics Projects Ham Radio Antenna Fm Antenna Diy Ham Radio Operator Dipole Antenna Radios Calculator Hams. Y-1013UF/LTE Classic design Yagi antenna with new -unique 4G/LTE signal rejection modification. The following is a guide on how to make a HDTV antenna. 4GHz Yagi Antenna: This antenna will extend the range of your WiFi or 2. Front to back ratio for both antennas is about 22 dB. DATE REVIEWED DATE. 93 HP 4342A Utilities. 8 d6 290,5 889 Radiateur 676 2083 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) réflecteur 711 2200 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) Espacements (en mm) Entre: réflecteur. The JK402 is a short boom 2 element 40m Yagi that has excellent gain and F/R. YU7EF "Low-temperature" antennas with clean patterns, all optimized for 50 ohm feed. The gain of an an antenna with parasitic elements varies with the spacing and tuning of the elements, and thus for any given spacing there is a tuning condition that will give maximum gain this spacing. He receive the wave. The following figure shows a schematic of. Although I'm not a big fan of V/UHF, going over DK7ZB's website I was impressed by his numerous Yagi antenna design and their good efficiency, and also, myself, eager to do some mechanical construction, I decided to try building this four elements Yagi for 430-440Mhz, to use it this summer in portable operation, mounting hiking etc. Also called a "beam antenna", or "parasitic array", the Yagi is very widely used as a high-gain antenna on the HF, VHF and UHF bands. At the heart of every radio and MLA (Magnetic Loop Antenna) is the resonant circuit. BUILD THE DIPOLE. I was working on connecting to a local repeater (12 miles away per Google maps) and had no luck with the rubber antenna on my handheld. The plots were taken on an IFR COM-120B Test Set with a Return Loss Bridge. The first online Dipole and Inverted V calculator on the page below has been around for many years and is designed as a simple "shortcut" so you will not have to do the math using the standard formulas for designing a horizontal dipole or inverted V dipole. yagi antenna design, yagi antenna calculator, yagi antenna india, yagi antenna for wifi, antenna for wifi, yagi antenna, yagi antenna diagram, fm antenna diy, yagi antenna diy, fm antenna design, FM A ntenna, FM Antenna booster, fm antenna for home, fm antenna for tv, fm antenna for home, fm antenna for receiver, fm antenna for r adio, FM A n. Such setups are widely used in wireless community networks for long-distance Wi-Fi links. I used EZNEC software - RF SIM 99 - Yagi Calculator by John Drew VK5DJ. " Update: 05/25 23:09 GMT by T : Reader John Stockdale offers a U. Experiment! Antennas are very forgiving, and you can become personally well known by the employees at your local. Mainly because most antennas work pretty well across the board. Moonraker was established in 1978. These optimized wide-band antennas offer up to 16 dBi gain and 30 dB F/B ratio when mounted at 20 feet over average ground (10. The approximate gain of this 15 element yagi is approximately 13dBi with a good front to back ratio of 20. Editor's note: Many years ago, the 10 meter version of this 2 element Yagi was built by myself using much the same construction techniques as mentioned in the article using small aluminum tubing. Turn a single yagi beam into a stacked version (normally two yagi antennas) without building a whole nother yagi antenna. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. A thorough reading and understanding of the other sections are necessary to comprehend all the terms used on this page. However, thanks to other hams like Steve AA5TB there are tried and tested designs, calculators & building methods that are known to work and that you can follow. 51 is now the highest channel, and a new generation of Yagi antennas cut for channel 51 will be the most desirable. With this Yagi antenna calculator, you will be able to build your own yagi antenna or at the very least compare it to other commercially made yagi antennas. DIRECTOR B. With the bolted construction, they look more like professional antennas than DIY jobs. For this antenna I bought an square bar (15x15mm), made of aluminium, length 1 meter. What i did understand so far now is: The Input Imedance has a real and an Imaginary part - 6. HB9CV Antenna Calculator. Antenna Maker Antenna design program for Quads, Yagis, Inverted Vees, J-poles, Trap Dipoles and more. Bowtie Antenna basics | Bowtie Antenna Calculator. 7 dB for 7 Bucks By Nathan Loucks, WBØCMT PO Box 229 Crosby, ND 58730 Need a 2-meter beam antenna, but you're short on cash? You can build this antenna for the cost of a fast-food meal! hen I became active on 2-meter FM, I soon discovered that I needed a beam antenna to hit some of the local repeaters. How to Build a J-Pole Antenna; How to Build a Tape Measure Yagi Antenna; How to Build a Multi-Band Fan Dipole Antenna; How to Build a Multiband Vertical Antenna; How to Build an Ugly Balun (1:1 Choke Balun) J-Pole Antenna Instructions; MultiRange Trap Antennas; Recycling TV Antennas for 2-Meter Use; Rhombic Antenna Calculator; Simple Gain. Hello Guys, yesterday I thought to myself I'm gonna make me one of those Yagi Uda antenna adapters for my Mavic Mini controller even though I don;t have a 3D printer! And I did, and it actually works! I used an online Yagi Uda calculator, and I just chose my options, I made a 11. He says that, provided that your Yagi is clean to start with, which means that its side lobes are down more than 18dB on the main lobe, you should stack at a distance in wavelengths of 57 / 3dB beamwidth in degrees. Build 1: 7 Element Yagi Commercial FM Band Antenna_____ or how to turn a Channel Master CM 3671B into a useful FM antenna. How to Build a Gray-Hoverman Super Antenna Putting it together is easy. What I have come up with was a simple diagram and using the measurements of the diagram I proceeded to build my antenna. com in a single category. purpose Yagi design calculator allows you to move elements to "tweak" the SWR. It was installed on a short mast about 15 to 17 feet. To construct a dipole, use 10- to 18-gauge copper wire. A well designed yagi has for that reson an impedance around 20. The antenna comes with our high quality, heavy duty materials and hardware. Yagi 6 element 7 element yagi calculator resource detail the dxzone a 2 element direct feed yagi for multiple bands by nno s antenna calculator martin hedman s Portable. Get a strong, clear signal with less noise from 2 meters through 40 meters with your choice of single- and multi-band Yagi antennas with up to 16 elements. I came across the website of Derek Hilleard, G4CQM, containing a wonderful assortment of details to help make your next Yagi-Uda project antenna a success. Due to its structure, it is known as. This antenna is made for the DX'er thatís looking for an antenna to work across the globe. popular-communications. There are several great programs to come up with the calculations I need. and Construction Notes by XE1MEX. Download Yagi calculator 2. As you may know by now, I'm REALLY into airwaves, and saving a buck to build my own antenna. Easy to Build WIFI 2. A quarter-wavelength antenna is easy and inexpensive to build and can be an effective antenna with a low angle of radiation (that is, power is radiated out, not up). 4Ghz coaxial cable antenna for routers and Robotics Vehicles: Radio equipment using the license-free 2. DIY: Build a 70cm Band Yagi for Amateur Satellite Tracking. In a matter of a few hours, you caneasily build a broadband, 2-meter Yagi—complete with mounting hardware—for $20. com This page covers 3 element Yagi Antenna calculator. It's the ubiquitous circular waveguide "cantenna": I obtained my can by going to my local 99 Cents Only store and buying a can of Heinz beans, which happened to be desired 3. If I am going to build it, I want it to be worth it and efficient. Waveguide antennas don't use the director assembly (the washery bits), and therefore are much simpler to build. 8 d6 290,5 889 Radiateur 676 2083 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) réflecteur 711 2200 (longeur total du fil et diamètre 2 mm) Espacements (en mm) Entre: réflecteur. All you need to do is enter the desired resonant (center) frequency in the form below, then click "Calculate". Yagi Uda Antenna Free Online Engineering Calculator to find the Dimensions of a yagi Uda Antenna for a given Frequency Range and Length. 5 VK5DJ's YAGI CALCULATOR Yagi design frequency =2150. 7 mm tip to tip, spaced 102 mm from reflector at boom posn 132 mm (IT = 104. It is inversely proportional to the frequency which means the wave with higher frequency will have shorter wavelength. We Provide 20 for you about 10 element yagi antenna calculator- page 1. Yagi-Uda antenna driven element impedance question « on: September 25, 2019, 08:25:56 pm » Hello, just needed to order a stash of different aluminium parts from a warehouse and thought adding some stuff for a diy yagi antenna construction, to make the shipping price less % of the whole order I thought it would be kind of handy for me to make. Thursday June. It was installed on a short mast about 15 to 17 feet. Resources listed under Antenna Calculators category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. 5m RG58 / N type female) LPDA7030-11-. For lo VHF you would need a Yagi antenna that does lo and hi VHF or a DIY loop antenna. Check with K5GW, the owner of Texas Towers. A yagi antenna is basically a telescope for radio waves. Since an old 5 element version (v1) of my antenna was shown in the July 2011 edition of RadCom, a few people have contacted me asking for some information on how it was constructed. antenna or Yagi Antenna is one of the most brilliant antenna designs. Antenna gain is measured in either dBi or dBd. This page covers 3 element Yagi Antenna calculator. Multi-band with antenna tuner. Contrairement au dipôle, l'antenne Fuchs est alimentée à une extrémité du brin demi-onde, dans un noeud de courant (ventre de tension, c'est pour cela qu'on. Director/reflector diam = 6. Hello Guys, yesterday I thought to myself I'm gonna make me one of those Yagi Uda antenna adapters for my Mavic Mini controller even though I don;t have a 3D printer! And I did, and it actually works! I used an online Yagi Uda calculator, and I just chose my options, I made a 11. Unispectra Ltd 26,749 views. If I am going to build it, I want it to be worth it and efficient. The yagi antenna is a directional antenna with multiple elements placed one after another. Diy 4g antenna Diy 4g antenna. 0 is a Yagi antenna calculator that can easily display E-Plane, horizontal radiation pattern, and H-Plane the vertical radiation patters, as well as to display antenna characteristics, in Gain, F/B ratio and feed point resistance and reactance. Typical tubing diameters for the 2m and 70cm bands are from 0. I have included a key lengths calculator in the form below. Construction is a pretty straightforward affair. To that end, here are 5 of the coolest DIY TV antenna plans we found. With the 4 elements yagi we come on a point when we must pay serious effort to our mast and rotating system. Whether you’re operating on 2 meters or you work in the 1. the dipole is an essential element of the YAGI antenna. Vobbe, W8HDU August 10, 2008: A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a directional antenna. Introduction Since it is very difficult to get a commercial VHF-UHF portable antenna in my town (like the famous Arrow), I decided to build a homebrew antenna as I did it in the past with most of my old HF and VHF antennas. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. The HB9CV-Beam is a 2-Element-Yagi with two driven elements and was introduced by Rudolf Baumgartner, HB9CV, in the 1950ies HB9CV Antenna Calculator by Dr Falkenberg Technology Consulting Inc. 1 mm Radiator diam =2. Large Loop Antennas The delta-loop antenna is a superb example of a high­ performance compromise antenna. Stay here to learn how to design a 3 element yagi for whatever frequency or wavelength you want. When you get the signal, it's crystal clear. Calculate up to a seven element Quad antenna. 00€ Add to Cart. Cut 2 pieces of coat-hanger wire 18 inches long. WC7I provides a calculator for a 3 element yagi design. 25in or 6mm, up to 3/8-in or 8-9mm. A portable 2-element VHF yagi May, 1997 Here's a simple Saturday project: build a portable VHF yagi antenna for 2 meters. Yagi wifi antennas can be rather difficult to build, but it can be done if you measure precisely and cut precisely. The following is a guide on how to make a HDTV antenna. To design the antenna, you need to go to Task > Design Yagi menu. The calculators for other antenna types such as parabolic,horn,dipole and patch are also mentioned. How to mount and feed. tower compared with the typical self-supporting tower supporting a beam antenna. If you want to put this thing outdoors, do not use brass, as it gets brittle. Parabolic calculator Cantenna Biquad Trig calculator Quad calculator Video Tutorials Passive Repeater MagicJack MJ Panasonic Fix Curtain Quad 148GTL-D Mods Ham-Radios Hand held Base Cordless-Phones Long range EnGenius Wifi Products High Power Pci Cards USB with antenna Wifi Antennas Pigtails & Coax Yagi Antennas USB Extenders More Routers. DATE REVIEWED DATE. Our free YAGI UHF TV ANTENNA PLANS describe how to build a simple high gain YAGI antenna for reception of a single broadcast television channel ranging between 14 and 70 (470 - 812 MHz). 9 mm) RADIATOR Single dipole 237. For this reason, ERI antennas are a broadcaster’s first choice. Yagi Antenna Design Software I have built several Yagi Antennas using this software, each antenna has been successful. The yagi antenna is a directional antenna with multiple elements placed one after another. Additional benefits of patch antennas is that they are easily fabricated making them cost effective.